About Carrots & Sticks


Carrots & Sticks was first published in 2006 to provide an overview of trends in standards for sustainability reporting. Launched by the UN Environment Programme with KPMG International, it built on the regular global survey of corporate sustainability reporting by KPMG. The initiative was subsequently joined by the GRI and University of Stellenbosch (USB).

The first edition in 2006 covered standards in 19 countries, largely members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). By 2016, the 10th anniversary edition covered 71 countries and territories, including the 50 biggest economies (by GDP) in the world. By 2020 it covered 84 countries.

From April 2023, Dr Adam William Chalmers (University of Edinburgh) and Dr Robyn Klingler-Vidra (King's College London) joined Carrots & Sticks as academic co-leads. In this capacity, they have expanded coverage to more than 130 countries and 40 languages, and have revised the methodology and policy analysis offering. For more on the methodology, see Research Methodology.

You can download all Carrots & Sticks reports here:

Get in touch

Feel free to get in touch

Email address

To contact one of the project partners please use the email addresses below:


Global Reporting Initiative



King's College London



University of Edinburgh



Stellenbosch Business School